You probably could, but I'd be worried about it overheating/getting damaged. If you still have the stock cable, use that instead. Not worth killing your battery so that it could save you a few minutes on charging times.
It won't damage the phone, the charging circuit in the phone won't take more than it can use. As long as the phone says charging (AC) there isn't anything you can do to make it charge faster. If it says charging (USB) then the charger or cable isn't exactly compatible and will charge at a lower rate, but it will charge.
I'm with UJ95x here. Given the problems we encounter from time to time with phones even when we use them with a sensible degree of care, I see no reason at all to invite trouble by doing things in any way other than those recommended by the manufacturers.