You'll need a known good charging board - which you can't get from anyone on eBay. If that doesn't do it (in the shop, they'd put one in from a phone that works to see if yours is bad), you'll need a new motherboard - again, you can't be assured of getting a good one on eBay. If you buy one from Samsung and the battery still won't charge, you need a new motherboard.
A motherboard from Samsung will cost you more than a used, in-almost-perfect-condition Note 3 on Swappa
, and you don't have to do anything but open the box, put your SIM in the phone and start using it.
Getting the components individually and replacing them isn't going to be possible - some of the chips aren't marked with any code that anyone but Samsung has information on. Buying a used chip is even more of a risk than buying a used motherboard. (Repairs aren't done at the component level any more, and boards aren't made to allow them to be. If components go bad, the board becomes electronic scrap. Not just with cellphones - all consumer electronics these days. Even the military does module-level repair on most things.)