It sounds like you are indeed able to scan QR codes. If the QR code you're viewing is linked to some website that is its purpose. This is mostly supposition but it also sounds like you're trying to repurpose that QR code to do something else, which isn't going to work. You need to get a QR code generator to create your own QR codes.
In the search box on the taskbar, type your phone, and then select Phone Link app from the results.
You’ll be asked to sign into your Microsoft account (You'll need to be signed into the same Microsoft account on both your Android device and PC in order to link your devices.)
Once you're signed in, you'll be prompted to install or open the companion app on your Android device. To do this, open a web browser on your Android device and then enter the link that's displayed on your PC (aka.ms/yourpc).
Sign into the companion app with the same Microsoft account that you're signed in to on your PC. The app will then open to a screen that displays a QR code for you to scan—we'll come back to that.
Once you've signed in, go back to your PC and select the I have the Link to Windows app installed on my phone check box. Then select the Pair with QR code button.
Note: If you'd like to pair your device without using a QR code, select the Pair manually button on your PC instead. On your Android device, you'll be prompted to enter the code displayed on your PC.
A QR code will appear on your PC screen. On your Android device, the companion app should be open to a screen with a camera on it. Use this screen to scan the QR code that's displayed on your PC.
Once your devices are linked, your Android device will prompt you for several device permissions. These permissions help you access content from your phone on your PC.