I am having a similar issue with my Nexus when I attempt to plug it into my new notebook (Windows 8) it will chirp and start charging but is otherwise unnoticed by my pc. However when I plug it into my desktop which is Windows 7 using the same cord it reads as a media device and charges. :'(
I just thought of something and apologize for not mentioning it sooner: if you have set up any of the various screenlock options (PIN, Pattern, Password, etc), then you will not see the Nexus4 as a drive in Windows Explorer until you unlock the phone.
I found that Win 8 did need the driver to be installed (from samsung's site) before it allowed it to be recognized. Charging will work since the USB port will provide that current regardless of whether the PC has the driver, or not. <-- as gnr_2 said.
One of the few drivers that actually need to be loaded. I'm thrilled that Win 8 didn't make me install drivers (and the crazy bloated installation packages for my network printers)
(also, as N4Newbie said, you will need to screen unlock your phone if it is locked)
I stumbled upon this thread because I was having the same problem. (plugged in, charging, not registering as "connected to usb".) Turns out there was a Samsung USB update a couple months back. Went to samsungs site, then to dowloands, then to software, and there it was. Downloaded it to my PC, plugged my phone in again, and it was business as usual. Thanks everyone for the help! And I hope this helps anybody still having problems!
I am having the same problem, my phone and my pc don't recognize anything but a charge when hooking up my phone on my pc via usb cord.... my phone is not a nexus or a galaxy, and I haven't recently had an update on my phone or computer...and I dont have the setting developer options?... My phone is an HTC Inspire 4G, and all I need to do is be able to load my pictures on my phone onto my pc. I have also tried multiple usb cords, and my pc doesn't have a wifi card or Id try connecting via wifi. pls help I have tried everything i can think of. PLS HELP!!